Artificial intelligence (AI) systems are increasingly constrained by memory solutions that overly constrict available memory bandwidth. For example, Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) used in AI applications such as finance, genome mapping, and speech AI – including Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR), Natural Language Processing/Understanding (NLP/NLU) – have two common traits:
- They are memory intensive
- They require very low latency
Consequently, RNN applications can become memory bound when implemented with the wrong memory architecture. Intel® Stratix® 10 MX FPGAs – with integrated, in-package, 3D stacked HBM2 DRAM – provide 10X more memory bandwidth with better performance per watt compared to conventional memory solutions such as DDR SDRAMs1.
Manjeera Digital Systems has developed a Universal Multifunction Accelerator (UMA) IP that solves memory-bound bottlenecks for applications like RNNs. The Manjeera UMA is a scalable, programmable datapath processor that delivers the performance of a hardware datapath while retaining software-programmable flexibility. Manjeera’s UMA implemented in an Intel® FPGA like the Intel Stratix 10 MX FPGA is called a Programmable Inference Engine (PIE), which can accelerate a wide variety of deep neural network (DNN) workloads including RNNs.
When instantiated in an Intel Stratix 10 MX FPGA, the Manjeera PIE connects to all sixteen HBM2 DRAM stack’s pseudo-channels and partitions the available memory in the HBM2 stack into sixteen independent blocks, resulting in an aggregate data transfer rate of 170 GBps per HBM2 stack. (An Intel Stratix 10 MX FPGA incorporates one or two 3D stacked HBM2 memories.) This high available data rate maximizes the PIE’s use of the available HBM2 DRAM stack’s bandwidth and delivers significantly more performance relative to the bandwidth available from external DDR SDRAM. High memory bandwidth has proven to be a key factor in achieving low-latency RNN performance.
The PIE is integrated into the OpenVino environment for direct import of TensorFlow models. The PIE also comes with a software stack for direct import of Keras models.
A new Intel White Paper titled “Accelerating Memory Bound AI Inference Workloads with Intel® Stratix® 10 MX Devices” provides additional technical details on this topic. To download this White Paper, click here to access the Intel FPGA Partner Solution page, scroll down to the Manjeera Digital Systems section, and click on the White Paper link.
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